The Ukrainian Neorealism: Evolution of Scientific and Artistic Discourse

Жигун, Сніжана Віталіївна (2016) The Ukrainian Neorealism: Evolution of Scientific and Artistic Discourse EngD thesis, Київський унверситет імені Бориса Грінченка.

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Abstract

The thesis deals with the system of artistic principles of Ukrainian neorealism as a result of the interaction of the realistic type of writing with modernism. It has been demonstrated that despite certain tradition of home literary criticism to regard neorealism as the crisis of realism or its continuation in the 20th century, more rightful is to designate by this term the modernism movement which actualizes the realistic type of writing. Consequently main modernistic concepts become dependant upon epistemological principle: sensationalism, subjectivism, irrationality of modern man yield to artistic cognition that leans upon the last scientific achievements.. This feature makes neorealism, probably the only current of modernism that keeps determinism first of all biological (psychological) one although its position becomes weaker with the movement development. Also the epistemological principle determines analyticity as the structural element of poetics. Neorealism as a post-impressionistic movement refused to represent the world as the sum of the disconnected fragments, having passed from this merological approach to the holistic one requiring phenomena consideration as processes, but not as states, as dynamic groups but not as isolated elements. At the same time it should be mentioned that lyricimpressionistic manner overcome by the neorealists paved the way for new epicism concentrated on the inner world of the character that became the refraction prism for review at the objective world. Mentioned principles defined the features of the neorealism artistic world: «narrow», often chamber space, where an introverted character can be concentrated on experiencing of crisis time. The structure of the last is mainly binary: the past (which is characterized by permanent moral values) and the present (disorganized and dehumanized), but the future only now and then arises in apocalyptic visions of atonement. Though life of characters is determined by concrete historical events, attention is concentrated not on them, but on private life of the character, offering a psychological, but not social and historical view to revolution. To a great extent neorealism is urbanistic, demonstrating the different methods of presentation of a town that shows the neorealists’ fight for symbolic space of the nation. The updating of psychological model is most important in the character representation: under the influence of psycho-analysis neorealists try to investigate artistically not only consciousness of the character but also his subconscious, and so, broaden the scope of psychological methods. The сrises times caused such features of the character determination as gender, class and nation. The neorealists demonstrate breaking (or anachronism) of patriarchal norms, that provides freedom of choice; class apostasy and declassing; unstable identity and «intercultural cooperation» that arises as a result of metropolis influence on the colonized space. The peculiarities of neorealism technique are determined by aspiration to represent the subjective picture of reality. Therefore narrator focalizing the character covert narrator becomes the aesthetic choice of neorealists. The told story mediating extends space for interpretation and makes it possible to take the ideological point of view away the borders of narration that breaks habit of the uncritical reading. Thecovert narrator’s story creates the illusion of the direct action flowing. It forms the readers’ persuasion that the broached problems and represented situations are not settled, their influence is lasting. The epistemological principle determines prevailing of gnosiological and ideological principles of narration method and at that time mythological principle often becomes an auxiliary one. That is neorealism does not aim at events development showing, but concentrates attention on individual vision of situations, intensifying subjectivity of the world picture or (in case of ideological type of narration) offers to the reader to comprehend some life regularities. As a result psychological novella and short story, intellectual and psychological story, intellectual novel and bildungsroman have become a basis of the neorealism genre system. In the literary process of the 1920th neorealism was contrasted to romantic of vitaism that leaned against the antagonistic type of literary works. Being formed in works by V.Vynnychenko, neorealism brightly showed up in works by “Lanka” prose writers, but its development was by force interrupted in the 1930th. The revealed system of principles substantially differs from the bases of the 19th century realism and can not be considered as its modification. At the same time the presence of some texts oriented to the aesthetic system of realism in the 20th century literature does not allow us to consider neorealism to be a movement that unites the manifestations of the realistic beginning in the literature of the mentioned period. And although some novellas by B. Antonenko-Davydovych can be considered as a relict phenomenon in the second half of the 20th century the influence of neorealism on the development of Ukrainian literature remained unrealized.

Item Type: Thesis (EngD)
Uncontrolled Keywords: literature movement, neorealism, realism, modernism, realistic type of writing, «Lanka» prose writers.
Subjects: Abstracts > Спецради Університету
Divisions: НМЦ > НМЦ досліджень, наукових проектів та програм
Depositing User: Ганна Сало
Date Deposited: 23 Aug 2016 10:20
Last Modified: 23 Aug 2016 10:20
URI: http://elibrary.kubg.edu.ua/id/eprint/14870

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