«We all live in the hope that we will return to Ukraine...» (the situation of interned Ukrainian soldiers in the camp of Alexandriv Kuyavsky, Poland, in the winter of 1920-1921)

Срібняк, Ігор Володимирович (2018) «We all live in the hope that we will return to Ukraine...» (the situation of interned Ukrainian soldiers in the camp of Alexandriv Kuyavsky, Poland, in the winter of 1920-1921) Сумська старовина (52). pp. 5-18. ISSN 2311-5408

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The concentration of Ukrainian soldiers in Alexandriv took place in the first decade of December 1920, in the camp there was the 6th «Sichova» Infantry Division of the Army of the UPR and several more of its units and institutions. While retaining its structure and headquarters, they were consolidated into one group of interned UPR troops headed by General M.Bezruchko. The camp had the proper infrastructure to properly organize the life of the interned on a military basis. In the winter of 1920-1921, the life of war was marked by considerable difficulties, due to the lack of money security, unsatisfactory sanitary and epidemiological situation in the camp, not always high-quality food, lack of part of the fighting of lingerie and some elements of clothing. The problem was that the barracks were not adapted to their everyday life in them in the winter, and for their heating (especially in severe frosts), there was a lack of fuel. The moral condition of the Ukrainian battleship also left much to be desired, as the recent military defeat of the UNR army generated in the souls of interned skepticism and despondency. Not all the elders were «burned by desire» to work with the soldiers, and the constant difficulty in everything prevented the implementation of the instructions of the head of the group of interned. The level of self-organization of combat in the camp was unsatisfactory, which led to the abandonment of the area around the lobster, and the actual neglect of sanitary norms. This state of affairs led to two outbreaks of a very terrible illness – typhus, and although they managed to localize, M.Bezruchko and his headquarters were faced with the need to find the necessary means to improve the conditions of internment in the camp. At the same time, there is every reason to state that the command of the interned Army of the UNR in Alexandria duly fulfilled its organizational and consolidating function, being able to give the warriors hope for change to the best. This function was performed by the orders of the camp issued by M.Bezruchko and the Chief of Staff of Colonel M.Zmienko (in the absence of the head of the group). Analysis of their content shows that they effectively performed regulatory and organizational-educational functions, and in addition – and mobilized the warrior at the most critical moments of their stay in the camp. The latter was achieved due to the fact that sometimes M.Bezruchko turned too interned not as a senior boss, but as a more experienced colleague, the instructions of which can be fulfilled only by joint efforts of the entire camp community. Thus, interned, albeit with difficulties, withstand the first three places of internment In the camp, already during February, the situation in the camp stabilized, and in addition – by the efforts of energetic and caring elders began preparations for the military training of Cossacks and elders. Winter was coming to an end, and only this circumstance filled the souls of the Interned with hopes for the continuation of the struggle against Bolshevism in the spring of summer 1921. The majority of the interned was ready to continue to withstand the disadvantages of the camp's existence, sincerely believing in the ideals of the Ukrainian People's Republic and the inevitability of overthrowing Soviet power in Ukraine.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Дану статтю було підготовлено завдяки сприянню Студіуму Східної Європи (Studium Europy Wschodniej) Варшавського університету, за ініціативи якого 2014 р. була започаткована щорічна Нагорода імені Івана Виговського (під почесним патронатом Президента Польщі), що вручається рішенням її Капітули з числа делегатів від 25 університетів та вищих шкіл Польщі. Під час підготовки цієї статті були використані документи, які зберігаються в Національній установі ім. Оссолінських у Вроцлаві, Польща (Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich we Wrocławiu), у зв’язку з чим автор розвідки вважає своїм приємним обов’язком скласти щиру подяку його директорові д-ру Адольфові Юзвенку.
Uncontrolled Keywords: camp; interned; officers; headquarters; order; Ukrainian soldiers; Alexandrov; Poland.
Subjects: Статті у наукометричних базах > Index Copernicus
Статті у журналах > Фахові (входять до переліку фахових, затверджений МОН)
Divisions: Факультет суспільно-гуманітарних наук > Кафедра всесвітньої історії
Depositing User: професор Ігор Володимирович Срібняк
Date Deposited: 05 Dec 2018 08:52
Last Modified: 05 Dec 2018 08:52
URI: https://elibrary.kubg.edu.ua/id/eprint/25065

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