Tendencies in development of German classical universities

Гаврилюк, Анна Віталіївна (2016) Tendencies in development of German classical universities PhD thesis, Київський унверситет імені Бориса Грінченка.

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Abstract

The dissertation is devoted to the development of German classical universities. Foreign and Ukrainian research works have been thoroughly analyzed. The definitions like “classical universities of Germany”, “university education of Germany”, have been researched in our paper. The main periods of development of German classical universities have been defined and characterized. The criteria for these periods are historical, socio-political, and socio-economical factors that affected the processes of development. The main periods are: first period (1945–1949) – the period of rebuilding and reconstruction the university system; second period (1949–1990) – reformation of the universities educational system in FRG (Federal Republic of Germany) and in GDR (German Democratic Republic); third period (1990–2015) – development of education in the reunificated Germany. According to these periods the classification of the classical German universities was made. The tendencies of the development are classified according to their unity (general) and to their difference (specific) of the processes. Рrespective German experience of the implementation into the educational space of Ukraine is singled out. In our paper the peculiarities of development in German universities (1945–2015) are presented and characterized. The main tendencies of development in the Federal Republic of Germany are: the renovation in the post-war era; the rising number of students; internationalization; following the principles of Wilhelm von Humboldt’s educational model; ascending academic mobility among students and university staff; integration into the European higher education space due to the Bologna process; implementation of new degrees: Bachelor and Master; participation in the prestige international educational competitions, such as Excellence Initiative. Among classical universities from FRG Heidelberg University, the University of Cologne, the University of Munich, the University of Trier were analyzed and researched. It is shown the structure and the organization of the educational processes, statistical data concerning the number of students and professors, and the evaluation of the quality of higher education at these universities. In our research, main tendencies of development in the German Democratic Republic are characterized. Those are the centralized educational administration; strong ideology of higher education; renaming the universities; reestablishing faculties into the sections within university structure; concentration on professional education; intensive cooperation with colleagues and universities from the Soviet Union. Among mutual tendencies between FRG and GDR was defined the ascending number of students at the universities. As the result the new phenomena of mass university (“Massenuniversität”) has emerged in the higher education space. Among GDR universities, we analyzed the University of Leipzig, the University of Greifswald, the University of Halle-Wittenberg, and the Humboldt University of Berlin. Our paper focused on the development of classical universities in the reunificated Germany (1990–2015). The main vectors of modernization due to the Bologna processes were outlined and characterized in the paper. The empirical part of our research included interviews with leading professors from the University of Cologne, Heidelberg Universities and the University of Trier. The main questions dealt with the educational policy of the university and the federal state. Among other important questions was the professor’s approach towards the implementation of the Bologna process. The students from two Ukrainian universities were also interviewed. We asked students to define classical universities in Germany, to name some of the well-known classical universities and to express their own opinion about the implementation of the Bologna process. Most of the respondents named more advantages than disadvantages of the Bologna process in their written answers. The approach of the professors towards the Bologna process was more complex as they outlined both advantages and disadvantages of this educational reform. In our research we outlined some recommendations for the modernization of Ukrainian university system of education. On the strategy level we recommended the implementation of the effective quality controlling and evaluative institution that will ensure the quality of higher education. The status of the autonomous university can be also applied by the Ukrainian universities. Furthermore, the old German tradition of the decentralization can be also implemented into the university system of Ukraine. On the didactical level we recommend to establish the standardized systems of applying to the universities by implementing a virtual portal or space for students and university staff which can be used in academic purposes. The advantages of such portal are individual access of every student and storage of all important documents and course registration in one online space. This study does not cover all aspects of university education in Germany, and demonstrates the need for its further development in such areas as: quality of higher education, management of higher education institutions, the processes of modernization of university education in Germany and in Ukraine.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords: university, classical university, classical universities in Germany, university education in Germany, reforming universities, tendencies of development of classical universities.
Subjects: Дисертації
Divisions: НМЦ > НМЦ досліджень, наукових проектів та програм
Depositing User: Ганна Сало
Date Deposited: 29 Apr 2016 08:05
Last Modified: 29 Apr 2016 08:05
URI: http://elibrary.kubg.edu.ua/id/eprint/14384

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