Weapons and Warfare of Old Europe. VI-IV Mill. BC

Відейко, М.Ю. (2019) Weapons and Warfare of Old Europe. VI-IV Mill. BC Одноосібна. Олег Філюк, Київ.

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Abstract

The studies of weapens and warfare of Old Europe now looks promising if the use of not only the data of archeology, but also technological studies, involving a wide range of ethnographical evidences, including the adequate understanding and evaluation of finds, which derived from archaeological research. Having a monopoly on the production of advanced weapons, having numerical superiority over its neighbors, farmers of Old Europe were the dominant military force at continent betveen 5000-3000 BC. Here we collected data, related to the development of weapons and warfare that craeted the basis of military power of farmers for nearly three thousand years (7000-3000 BC). We can consider development of weapons, such as hammer-axes, daggers, spreading of effective copper weapons. The appearance of armor and shields led to the development of offensive weapons suitable for destruction of well protected enemy. So we can observe that, as well as inthe following century, the copper age was endless race of attack and defense. During the first few centuries of the history of the ancient farmers in Europe, which began in the late VII - early VI millennium BC. was developed and improved weapon set, which was initially limited to hunting weapons - bow, spear. It is expanded, adding axes and maces (the latter being borrowed from hunting neighbors). Subsequently, some of the weapons later were produced from metal - copper (axes, slashers, blade weapons)/ In the early V millennium BC. hammer-axes becomes a symbol of the power of the leaders, later joined by the mace. The division of labor and the emergence of craft have created the conditions for the improvement, production and introduction of both traditional and new weapons, which have spread rapidly enough in the environment of agricultural cultural complexes, which in this respect have gained advantages over neighbors. The settlements of the ancient farmers in the VI th Mill. BC. Were surrounded by fortifications in the form of ditxhes, supplemented by palisades and towers of wood, and in the south by walls and towers of stone. In the Vth millennium, fortified settlements are no longer an exception but a common phenomenon. Large settlements with thousands of inhabitants - Trypillian Proto-cities were also fortified. Ancient societies have begun to spend considerable resources on "passive security" systems. For a long time all discussions about the military aspect of the large Trypillia Culture sites – proto-cities were based on several finds of warfare and possibly fortifications – so-called “living walls”. Only last ten years appeared, thanks to magnetic prospections at Moldova and Ukraine, and were investigated the first real evidences, including traces of ditches and palisades. Large sites had from one to three lines of fortifications, which were from 2 up to 7-8 km long. Population of this settlements spent a lot of time and resources to create them, and sometimes – to rebuild or improve. This fortifications had strategic significance and symbolized power and prosperity of communities. Possession of specialized weapons required high skills that could be acquired through systematic training. An important element was also the psychological preparation, readiness for hand-to-hand combat. There is an institute of warriors who distinguished themselves from the rest of society, including details of clothing, battle colors, tattoos. Population growth has led to societal shifts, including those aimed at enhancing military capabilities. The formation of tribal unions led to the enhancement of the military capabilities of individual communities, which were now not only successfully opposed to their neighbors but also able to infuse their interests (agrarian colonization, possession of resources and important ways of exchange, etc.). Leadership centers in the area of the Cucuteni-Trypillia cultural unity were thelarge fortified settlements with thousands of inhabitants, each of which could to mobilize hundreds or thousands warriors in a relatively short span of time. All of the phenomena noted above have had both local characteristics and have undergone some changes over the three thousand years presented in our review. Even such a short overview of the military history of the ancient farming societies of Europe over the three millennia sufficiently demonstrates the views of that it wa the age of total peace and harmony, interrupted only by the invasions of the warlike tribes of the “kurgan cultures” from th East. , In fact, this world of "peaceful farnmers" looks not only prone to external expansion, but also the exploration of relationships within a circle of related cultures by using military forces and violence.

Item Type: Monograph (Одноосібна)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Southeastern and Central Europe, ancient farmers, warfare, arms
Subjects: Монографії > Видані в Україні
Divisions: Факультети > Історико-філософський факультет > НДЛ археології
Depositing User: д.і.н. Михайло Юрієвич Відейко
Date Deposited: 19 Nov 2019 09:21
Last Modified: 19 Nov 2019 09:21
URI: http://elibrary.kubg.edu.ua/id/eprint/28807

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