Revolutionizing of Jewish and Ukrainian Prisoners of War in Freistadt Camp, Austria-Hungary (1915-1917): social dimension

Sribniak, Ihor and Yakovenko, Natalia and Matviyenko, Viktor (2022) Revolutionizing of Jewish and Ukrainian Prisoners of War in Freistadt Camp, Austria-Hungary (1915-1917): social dimension Przestrzeń Społeczna (Social Space), 23 (1). pp. 127-151. ISSN 2084-7696; 2084-1558

[thumbnail of I_Sribnyak_N_Yakovenko_V_Matviyenko_PS_2022_1(23)_FSHN.pdf] Text
I_Sribnyak_N_Yakovenko_V_Matviyenko_PS_2022_1(23)_FSHN.pdf - Published Version

Download (606kB)


The article analyses the process of revolutionisation of captured Ukrainians and Jews, which was started by the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine after first successes of Ukrainian propaganda in the Freistadt Prisoners of War camp. The Ukrainisation of the camp’s inhabitants and their public awareness initiated complex processes of differentiation among the campers, as a result of which they might be divided into three numerically unequal groups – at the very beginning just a few supported the Ukrainian national liberation slogans, the Black Hundred minority of prisoners stood for “Faith, Tsar and Fatherland”, the third largest group of captives, without having their own worldview, initial-ly followed the Black Hundreds and “Lesser Russians”. The Black Hundreds made every effort to prevent or at least slow down the process of national and social awakening of the captured Ukrainians and Jews in Freistadt, using also the arrival of A. V. Romanova, the Sister of Mercy. There is every reason to believe that the main tasks of her mis-sion to the camp were propaganda and mobilisation aimed at the Black Hundreds and “Lesser Rus-sians”, and provocation and dissociation concerning members of Ukrainian and Jewish camp organi-sations. So, it is not surprising, that some members of the camp community used rather radical and even insulting remarks about her. It is obvious that the captives should not have “moved on to per-sonalities”, but the “sister” did everything she could to set a conscious part of the camp community against herself. Further development of national-patriotic activities led to gradual destruction of the Black Hundred ideology in the minds of prisoners, destroying at the same time “Lesser Russian” ideas in the worldview of Ukrainians. Ukrainian and Jewish activists of the camp managed to develop national cultural and educational centres and attract the majority of the campers to participate in them. Hidden opponents of the Ukrainian and Jewish national ideas no longer dared to oppose them openly, and the camp was more and more gaining its national character, having turned into the centre of Ukrainian life in Austria-Hungary. Such a high level of self-organisation of captive Ukrainians and Jews caused the Austro-Hungarian authorities to intensify the process of revolutionising the camp, using somewhat unusual (for captivity conditions) forms. It concerned celebration of the 1 of May, when symbols of red colours and appropriate slogans were used, which was strictly prohibited for the subjects of the Austrian emperor during the war. However, all the conditions were created for the prisoners of war to celebrate this holiday, expecting that sooner or later they would return home and spread the patterns of social activities they have experienced.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: captured Ukrainians and Jews; Black Hundreds; public awareness; Freistadt camp; Aus-tria-Hungary
Subjects: Статті у наукометричних базах > Erih Plus
Статті у наукометричних базах > Index Copernicus
Divisions: Факультет суспільно-гуманітарних наук > Кафедра всесвітньої історії
Depositing User: професор Ігор Володимирович Срібняк
Date Deposited: 13 Dec 2022 05:15
Last Modified: 13 Dec 2022 05:15

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item